Philosophical Alternatives_3_2021

Issue editor: Martin Tabakov
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & The authors in the issue

Rosen Lyutskanov(Associate Professor, PhD, at the IPhS , BAS)
Non-Euclidean Geometry in The Critique of Pure Reason? Symbolic Construction beyond the Dictate of Pure Intuition
The paper discusses a traditionally construed as problematic aspect of Kant's philosophy of mathematics: the place and importance of non-Euclidean geometry in the structure of mathematics. Kant's conception of pure intuition in mathematics is usually considered incompatible with the existence of mathematics, leaving no place for the latter. In this paper I argue that we can find a place for them, provided we know where to look. Of key importance in this respect is the concept of symbolic construction, which Kant employs in his discussion of algebra. The concept makes it possible to sidestep the limitations related to the requirement of constructibility in pure intuition. The development of Hilbert's formalism in the philosophy of mathematics can be seen as a continuation of this move that makes manifest its full potential, which was not, and even could not, be realized by Kant.
Keywords: Kant; pure intuition; non-Euclidean geometry; algebra; symbolic construction.

Bogdana Paskaleva(Senior Assist. Professor, PhD, at SU St. Kliment Ohridski)
Infinite Time – Its Origin and Form: Transformations of Aristotle's Model of Time
The article takes as a starting point Jacques Derrida's article “Ousia and gramme”. According to Derrida's analysis, time, in the Western philosophical tradition, can be thought of as infinite only within the model of an infinite cyclical rotation. Then, employing arguments from Aristotle's analysis of time in Book IV of Physics, the article seeks to prove that the infinity of time can be understood (from Aristotle's point of view) as non-cyclical as well, inasmuch as the interpretation of the concept of time can be effectuated separately from the structure of the cosmos of which it is the time. Thus, we may assume that a concept of non-cyclical infinite time can be found in Aristotle's account of time.
Keywords: concept of time; Aristotle; the infinite; cyclicity and non-cyclicity.

Sofia Avramova(PhD in philosophy at Cégep de Saint-Laurent, Montréal)
The Integrity and Unity of Greek Thought: The Understanding of the Coupled Concepts Difficult/Easy and Force/Weakness in Terms of Good and Evil
The aim of this article is to demonstrate the integrity of Greek philosophy, both pagan and Christian, through the understanding of strength, effort and difficulty as the supreme good for the human individual on his/her path to perfection and deification.
Keywords: strength; effort; self-mastery; endurance; exercises.

Aleksandar Spirdonov(Student of philosophy and political science at Complutense University of Madrid /Universidad Complutense de Madrid/)
Francisco Suárez as a Bridge between Scholasticism and Modern Philosophy
This article addresses the problem of the position of the Spanish theologian and philosopher Francisco Suárez (1548–1617) in the history of philosophy, delineating the main parameters of his system and establishing the profound influence he has on modern philosophers. The author examines the parallel views that produce ties of continuity between René Descartes and Francisco Suárez. The article devotes attention to Suarez's conception of “formal concept”, which leads to a new interpretation of truth that differs from the Thomistic one. The author reaches the conclusion that the essentialism, logicism and subjectivism in the epistemology and ontology of the scholastic philosopher from Salamanca condition to a significant degree the development and specific contents of modern philosophical though. This conclusion, repeatedly noted by Heidegger, poses the question of the need to reconsider Suarez's place in the history of philosophy.
Keywords: Francisco Suárez; René Descartes; scholasticism; Modernity; hylomorphism; essentialism; ontology; general metaphysics; special metaphysics.

Constantin Yanakiev(Associate Professor, PhD, at SU St. Kliment Ohridski)
On Descartes' Notae in programma (Commentaries on a Certain Broadsheet)
Descartes Notae in Programma quoddam (Commentaries on a Certain Broadsheet) are translated for the first time from Latin into Bulgarian. Written at the end of 1647, they contain Descartes' reaction to his former Dutch adherent Henricus Regius, provoked by a broadsheet published shortly before. The 21 theses contained in the broadsheet are quoted in full by Descartes. Although Cartesian in character, some of Regius's theses show a considerable deviation from his master's views, and Descartes felt it necessary to publicly repudiate them. He also took the occasion to answer some attacks by Dutch opponents. The text is preceded by a short commentary on the historical context of Cartesianism's reception and diffusion in Holland.
Keywords: Cartesianism's reception; mind and body; substance; mode; attribute; certainty; ontological proof.

Boyan Bahanov(PhD Graduate student at SU St. Kliment Ohridsky)
Consciousness as a Prerequisite for Law and Law as a Prerequisite for Free Will
The present study expresses the thesis that there is a direct connection between the development of the consciousness of individuals in a society, the emergence of law, and the formation of free will. First, the article distinguishes between consciousness in the broad sense and consciousness in the narrow sense. The author also presents the different degrees of awareness, which will answer the question, at what level of their development human individuals attain the capacity to coexist in a legal society. Subsequently, the thesis will be argued that, in such a legal society, the necessary prerequisites are created for the formation of free will in the individual.
b>Keywords: integrative function; law; legal experience; legal society; free will; subjective rights; consciousness; legal obligation.
Anguel S. Stefanov(Corresponding Member of BAS, DSc.,Professor at the IPhS , BAS)
The Pygmalion Syndrome as an Epistemological Horizon
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to present and analyze a phenomenon introduced by J. L. Synge half a century ago, and dubbed by him the Pygmalion syndrome. The latter is discussed with regard to contemporary non-classical scientific knowledge. And second, to defend the claim that the Pygmalion syndrome may be seen as a specific epistemological horizon for non-classical quantum-cosmological theories.
Keywords: non-classical scientific knowledge; Pygmalion syndrome; epistemological horizon.

David Peev(Senior Assist. Professor, PhD, at SU St. Kliment Ohridski)
Hard Incompatibilism Does Not Change a Thing
In this article, I defend a version of hard incompatibilism with regard to free will. My central claim is that hard incompatibilism does not suffer from any of the problems that compatibilism and libertarianism face; ergo, that hard incompatibilism is the least problematic stance. Moreover, hard incompatibilism can be incorporated in any scientific system and theory. First, I propose a brief reconstruction of Hume`s classical version of compatibilism. In the second part, I focus on a couple of objections that classic compatibilism faces. I aim to show that some of these charges are applicable both to contemporary physicalist readings of compatibilism (such as that of Patricia Churchland) and to libertarian incompatibilism. The final section of my paper points out some reasons for rejecting the argument from contemplation of linguistic categories. My aim is to show that the same semantic critique of the meaning of “freedom” can just as easily be aimed at compatibilism. I conclude that hard incompatibilism successfully faces all of these charges and does not suffer from any additional disadvantages. Moreover, if hard incompatibilism holds, then we can continue to uphold the usual moral beliefs and practices.
Keywords: free will; indeterminism; naturalism; hard incompatibilism.
Martin Tabakov(DSc., Professor at the IPhS, BAS)
Challenges of Non-classical Logic to Philosophy
We are discussing important problems prior to philosophy of logic that Non-classical logic has raised. The main one is the proliferation and, respectively, the question of monism and pluralism in logic. Another challenge to philosophy, related to the imposition of non-classical logic, is the appearance and application of the term “philosophical logic”. For me, two questions related in fundamental ways. Because I believe that one of the answers to the question, “What, actually, is “philosophical logic'?” is that part of its task is to philosophically discuss precisely the problems that the emergence and validation of non-classical logic pose for philosophy. And this is a concrete example of how to understand the tasks of the still unclear concept of "philosophical logic". So I will first focus on this notion. As for the reasons for the term – “scientific and theoretical”, and “social and practical”, I will mainly focus on the first, but in the end I will also touch on the second.
Keywords: logic, philosophy, Non-classical, proliferation, philosophical logic
Serghey Gherdjikov(Prof., DSc., at SU St. Kliment Ohridski)
Artifacts: Their Creation and Ontological Status
This article is an attempt at philosophical analysis of artifacts as anthropogenetic abiotic functional and symbolic structures. I apply the concept of human form (nature) as a global real coordinate system for explaining artifacts, and the concept of anthropological constants. I argue that artifacts are created in processes of selection and transformation in the life cycles of cultures. I analyze the virtual reproduction of artifacts in archaeology. I present an ontological scheme of artifacts and some schemas of reconstruction.
Keywords: artifact; creation; coordinate system; anthropological constants; reconstruction.

Denitsa Zhelyazkova(PhD Graduate Student at SU St. Kliment Ohridski)
Logical Realism and the Ontological Status of Logical Objects
In this text, I focus on clarifying the ontological status of logical objects. By logical objects, I mean logical constants and logical relations in the most general sense of the terms. For this purpose, I accept logical realism with regard to logical objects and maintain that, without accepting this kind of realism, the clarification of their ontological nature would not be possible.
Keywords: logical constants; logical realism; relations; logical objects.

Boris Nikolov(PhD Graduate Student at the IPhS, BASi)
Benacerraf's Dilemma and Neo-Meinongianism
This article aims to present the application of neo-Meinongianism to Benacerraf's dilemma. This dilemma embodies the problems of the ontology of mathematical objects. The two schools of thought in philosophy of mathematics – realism and anti-realism, are the two sides of the dilemma. The dilemma poses a challenge to the ontology of mathematical objects: in order to be adequate, it must not make the semantic and epistemological problems related to it unsolvable. This further complicates the ontology of mathematical objects. In a sense, we can assume that neo-Meinongianism, as a non-traditional approach, can offer a satisfactory solution to the dilemma, for, on the one hand, it preserves the standard referential semantics and, on the other, it makes a modification in the epistemology of mathematical objects.
Keywords: mathematical objects; ontology; epistemology; semantic; neo-Meinongianism.
Valeri Lichev(Associate Professor, PhD, at the IPhS, BAS)
Associate Professor, PhD, at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS The Role of Paradoxes in Belles-Lettres
The founder of structural linguistics, F. Saussure, noted that language is a “sort of algebra”. His followers develop this idea by borrowing elements from formal logical and mathematical languages. In this way, they attempt to reveal the deep structures of any text, regardless of its genre. The us of paradoxes in artistic literature is motivated by the writers' desire to denote something without directly naming it. J. Derrida deals with the same problem: “How to say things without saying them”. To illustrate the role of paradoxes in literary works, we can point out the conversation between Shakespeare's character Hamlet and the clown (the gravedigger). Other examples of paradoxes can be found in the works of R. Musil, Th. Gautier, A. Schnitzler, S. Beckett, etc.
Keywords: paradoxes; belles-lettres; structural linguistics; logic.

Daniel Stoev(PhD Graduate Student at SU “St. Kliment Ohridski”)
Operational Analysis and Language Fetishism
According to a highly influential view spread both inside and outside the academic world, certain semantic characteristics are inherent to the linguistic units, namely, it is inherent for them to mean something/to be meaningful. First, I attempt to demonstrate that no such inherent characteristics (treated either as natural features of the linguistic units or as their denotative or expressive relations to entities distinct from them) can be isolated. The approach by which this demonstration is carried out follows the version of operational analysis developed and employed by B. F. Skinner and assumes the form of an operational analysis of the application of the semantic terms “mean” and “meaningful” to linguistic units. Second, I consider the fact that the behavior of a human individual could be changed in certain ways by exposure to linguistic units generated by some other human individual. I call such facts “verbally induced behavior modification” (“VIBM”) and argue that these VIBM occasion the application of the terms “mean” and “meaningful” to one linguistic unit or another. On the basis of the previous two points, thirdly, I try to isolate a specific pattern of investigative behavior with respect to language. When exposed to a linguistic unit (“L”) and then to a second linguistic unit occasioned by the first, in which either one of the terms “mean” and “meaningful” is applied to L (e.g., “L is meaningful”), the investigator does not investigate what kind of circumstances related to L have led to the emission of “is meaningful”, but instead directly proceeds as if a characteristic distinctive of L has been discovered, namely, that L is meaningful, thereby diverting her/his attention from VIBM. I call this pattern of investigative behavior “language fetishism” and try to partially demonstrate some of its consequences for the investigation of language. Fourth, I try to show that this pattern of behavior is not identical with the well-known practice of so-called “reification”.
Keywords: language; meaning; operational analysis; verbal behavior; verbally induced behavior modification; language fetishism; denoting; referring; reification; hypostatization; B. F. Skinner.
Doroteya Angelova(Associate Professor, PhD, at IPhS, BAS)
For Some Applications of Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets in the Field of Medicine
Fuzzy logic is one of the precisely constructed and well-motivated logical systems that find successful applications in various fields. They are especially suitable in cases when it is necessary to use approximate reasoning. In this paper, I present the main views on the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy sets in the field of medicine and I express my attitude to them.
Keywords: fuzzy logic; fuzzy sets; medicine.