Philosophical Alternatives 2/2022

Issue editor: Ivanka Stapova
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Ivan Stefanov (Professor, DSc at Sofia University 'St. Kliment Ohridski')
Rise and Fall of the dogmatic aesthetics. Todor Pavlov against Isaac Passy
Abstract: The main idea of the article is that the Marxist-Leninist aesthetics in its extreme and dogmatic variant, shared by academic Todor Pavlov, leads to theoretical disorganization not only in the field of aesthetics but in the general artistic field as well. This happens because the treatment of aesthetics simply as an ideological and political norm system inevitably leads to the disappearance of art as anything other but ideology and politics. The article examines an extremely dangerous dogmatic reduction that does huge harm on the ever-present diversity of art. By means of this reduction dogmatism through its political and ideological concepts is even capable of destroying art.
Dogmatism ideologically mystifies art, thus in fact obliterating it.
Keywords: art, conceptuality, ideology, politics, partisan, Todor Pavlov, Isaac Passy

Tatyana Batuleva (Professor, DSc at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
On Aesthetic Values in the Context of Radoslav Tsanoff's Integral Approach
Abstract: The text analyzes the role of aesthetic experience for Radoslav Tsanoff, an American philosopher of Bulgarian origin. The article is structured in the following directions: creativity and innovation in science and art (differences and analogies); art and culture as part of a new scale of values; aesthetic experience as participation in the perspective of the theory of shared values; role and importance of culture (spirit of cosmic scale and depth). The conclusion is that these are in harmony with the general direction in his work, including the need for an integral approach and a new scale of values.
Keywords: shared values, aesthetic experience, integral approach, cosmic perspective
Silviya Kristeva (Associate Professor at South-West University “Neofit Rilski”, Bulgaria)
Phenomenology of Imagination
Abstract: The phenomenology of imagination must be built on the becoming of the specific phenomena produced by the creative power of the imagination. Here the imagination is established as an autonomous faculty with its own region, and the constitution of its phenomena aims to build the art image. The genesis of the art image is defined in the conditions of Kant’s productive synthesis, carried out on autonomous procedures and rules, and the steps in the generation of the art image in the pure continuum of intuition are traced. The objective modes in the work of the imagination are subdivided into real, on depiction and generalization of external reality, purely fantastic, on an entirely artistically generated world, and hybrid, which always mixes elements of the real and the fantastic. As a telos of the art phenomenon, the relation towards the Absolute Ideal of Beautiful is stated, which relation is understood by Husserl as “setting the norm” of ideality for the art object.
Keywords: philosophy of art; phenomenology of art; Husserl; Kant; the power of imagination; fantastic image.

Nikolina Deleva (PhD student at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Art and Knowledge – theories and points of view
Abstract: The question of the cognitive value of art is considered from the general perspective of contemporary cognitive-anti-cognitive debate. The article is devoted to the question of whether art can be a source of knowledge and what kind of knowledge. The arguments for and against the cognitive function of art are considered in light of the historical development of this debate from Plato and Aristotle to the present. The cognitive value of art is examined in its relation to the aesthetic and moral value of art. Art as a source of knowledge is conceptualized in terms of history, aesthetics, axiology, philosophy of art and art criticism.
Keywords: knowledge, perception, autonomy, referentiality, formalism, cognitivism, anticognitivism, science, art, value, philosophy of art, axiology, aesthetics.

Valentin Angelov (Professor, DSc at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria)
The Paradoxes of Creative Innovation
Abstract: Novelty (innovation) has an important role in the modern art; the value of a work of art is most often measured by it. This article explores the negative innovations, some of which have even a scandalous effect. From Dadaism onwards the topic of negative innovations is of theoretical interest. This raises the question of negative values in the modern art, especially in Avant-garde art.
Keywords: innovation, negative innovation, scandalous innovation, art without aesthetics, negative values in art, non-aesthetic art, de-artisticization of art.

Sylvia Borissova (Associate Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
‘Absolute Physical Patterns’ in Nili Portugali’s Holistic Phenomenological Approach in Arts
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the Israeli architect Nili Portugali’s holistic-phenomenological approach in the planning process in architecture, the creative process in arts and life as a whole. This approach is based on the British-American architect and design theorist Christopher Alexander’s empirical study on ‘absolute physical patterns’ and the common and ‘entire’ language which the pattern language is. Respectfully, a holistic phenomenology of architecture, organic order, sense of belonging, timeless quality, beauty and the ‘one value’ of the One Self—are integral part of this pattern language.
Keywords: phenomenology of architecture, space, sense of belonging, beauty, ‘one value’, quality, ‘absolute physical patterns’, Nili Portugali, Christopher Alexander

Georgy Fotev (Professor Emeritus and Senator at New Bulgarian University)
The meaning of music
Abstract: Music has a double meaning. The musical meaning is specific immanent and constitutive for the musical work, taken in itself as without subject. The meaning of music is a connection between a piece of music (musical meaning) and the extra-musical human lifeworld. The musical meaning and the meaning of music are inseparable. The great forms of European music are modal, tonal, atonal and aleatory music. The transition from one form to another is a transformation of the immanent musical meaning and the meaning of music. They are historically determined. The meaning of music is possible thanks to isomorphism in the universe.
Keywords: meaning, intentionality, tone, modal music, tonal music, atonal music, aleatory music, musical imagination, isomorphism, absolute music, time, anti-aesthetics.

Vyara Popova (Assistant Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The ethical aspect of color as fashion: XIV–XVI century
Abstract: The article traces the transformation of black color in clothing as a sign of high ethical standards. And fashion itself began to operate as an axiological and ideological form, expressing and setting certain values. Thus, clothing as a color, on the one hand, becomes a sign of public indication and recognition, and on the other – an instrument of social segregation.
Keywords: color, clothing, fashion, identification, recognition, ideology, social segregation.

Nina Dimitrova (Professor, DSc at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The Three Deaths of Sergei Bulgakov (Sophiology of Death)
Abstract: The text comments on the reflections of the Russian thinker Sergei Bulgakov on death, presented in the light of his doctrine of Σοφία. The article traces in chronological order the development of the theme of death in his works, beginning with the pre-revolutionary works “Philosophy of Economy” (1912) and “Unfading Light: Contemplations and Speculations” (1917), and ending with “Sophiology of Death” (1940). The author describes Bulgakov's three meetings with death, which gave rise to his special sophiology of death. The notion of death is analyzed as included in the divine kenosis, and not as an ontological misunderstanding. Death is also seen as a moment present in the dialectic of life – It does not disturb the beauty of creation.
Bulgakov's thoughts are entirely in the spirit of the Russian religious-philosophical renaissance of the early twentieth century, which pays special attention to human activity in the relationship God – man.
Keywords: Sergei Bulgakov, Russian religious philosophy, Russian Émigré Theology and Philosophy, all-unity, Σοφία, sophiology, sophiology of death, divine kenosis.

Ivan Svilenov Stefanov (MA in Art Sciences at National Academy of Arts, Bulgaria; Publishing Projects Expert at “13 Centuries of Bulgaria” National Endowment Fund)
The Original in the Age of Its Digital Reproducibility
Abstract: The problem with the original in the era of its digital reproducibility concerns both photography, which until recently dominated media in contemporary art, and more conventional art forms, such as painting and music, which entered the digital universe and became irreversibly devalued because of the accessibility and malicious democracy of the new digital meta universe. Entering the second decade of the 21st century, the economic trap in which the arts fall is becoming clearer, and the traditional idea of the uniqueness of the original work falls under the pragmatic critique of the consumer world, in which everyone can and wants to own, in the digital format, all the information of interest or need. A new chance for artists to declare the originality of their digital work is the emerging NFT culture, and an interesting question that may arise from now on is whether a potential shift of big capital to the originals in their digital version will not orient the gallery spaces to other purposes than commercial? Obviously, interesting restructuring in the world of art is forthcoming and the emergence of new and more important institutions than galleries and museums is not excluded.
Keywords: photography, analog photography, digital Art, original, Walter Benjamin, NFT, The Artworld.

Erina Krasteva (PhD at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Bulgaria)
Aesthetics of icons: advertising communication in a way of combining fine and applied art elements
Abstract: The questions of our interest and high priority belong to the field of aesthetics in advertising design and communication. The answers could give a deeper understanding of the logic, function, and specifics of the meaning standing behind the visual and its ways of spreading information through icons. It can be “consumed” imperceptibly by the audience and at the same time produce a reaction. In other words, there are hidden messages beyond the two-dimensional print/digital images that could be sent more effectively adopting some methods of aesthetics. Our main goal is to discover how the entire process unfolds and how it is possible for this to happen. So, we will focus on the icon sign system and the visual rhetorical figures that are the base of some communicative strategies.
Keywords: aesthetics, advertising, semiotics, iconic sign system, visual rhetorical figures, communication, graphic communication, design, art.

Arthur Danto (prominent representative of Anglo-American, or analytic philosophy)
The Artworld (translated by Ivan Popov)
Abstract: In his seminal article “The Artworld“ (1964) Arthur Danto breaks with the neo-wittgensteinian refusal to look for a definition of art, which dominated Anglophone aesthetics in the middle of the 20th century. Turning away from the perceptible properties of artworks, Danto offers a convincing argument for the claim, that artistic theory as well as art history are necessary in order to adequately identify and speak of art. Later developments have led to the formulation of the so called institutional theory of art by the philosopher George Dickie, building on the term “artworld”, the fact notwithstanding that this definition has been refuted. Danto's contribution to art theory has been compared by his successors to a “paradigm shift” in the philosophy of art.
Keywords: Arthur Danto, Andy Warhol, definition of art, George Dickie, institutional theory of art.

Walter Benjamin (German philosopher, essayist, translator, theorist and historian of culture, literature and translation)
Unmensch (translated by Gergana Farkova)
Abstract: In his perplexing and rich essay on Karl Kraus (1874–1936) Walter Benjamin is exploring the character and the work of one of the cult figures in Austrian and German culture in the first third of XX century. Kraus is a brilliant stylist and a fierce critic of bourgeois hypocrisy and conservative institutions. His political views and religious convictions may change, but his principles of defending the disadvantaged and denouncing the arbitrariness of those in power are immutable. For Benjamin Kraus is a perfect example to illustrate a series of his own concepts: the divine nature of language and word, the enormous potential of quotation to refer to the source of things, the creative power of misanthropy for resisting conformist indifference leading to the degeneration of the human, the progressive eschatology of social conflict, the unity between aesthetics and politics.
Keywords: Karl Kraus, Walter Benjamin, poetry, misanthropy, unity of ethics and aesthetics.

Plamen Antov (Professor, DSc at Institute for Literature, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
With Regard to Nietzsche
Abstract: This text is part of a book with fragments to be published. The fragments touch on the figure of Nietzsche, although in a casual, relatively free way, and are mainly selected to characterize “his” themes or biographical plots (including the fragmentary metanarrative itself).
Keywords: Nietzsche, madness, reason, nature, culture, Europe, Germany etc.

Ivanka Stapova – The Feminine: Current Research Focus
Sylvia Borissova – Seventh Conference on Aesthetics in the memory of Prof. Isaac Passy