Philosophical Alternatives 6/2022

Issue editor: Kristiyan Enchev
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Philosophical Alternatives 6/2022

Ivaylo Dimitrov (Associate Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Two Faculties in Crusius and Kant
Abstract: In his natural philosophical period, the pre-Critical Kant borrows from the founders of rational and empirical psychology a concept of a peculiar receptive faculty, which is expressed by the term Fähigkeit and defines the dispositional possibility of the rational soul to reach the limits of its thinking nature through exercise. In this context, in this paper I attempt to extend the discussion of the distinctions between faculty and capacity (Vermögen/Fähigkeit) and between sensibility and understanding (Sinnlichkeit/Verstand) so that to stop at the margins of the most critical distinction for the Critical project – that between understanding and reason (Verstand/Vernunft). To this end, I juxtapose two readings of Kant's pivotal distinctions from his Inaugural Dissertation of 1770, recently offered by leading Kant scholars (E. Watkins and C.W. Dyck) who highlight the crucial influence of Christian August Crusius on the development of Kant's Critical metaphysics. As a result of my critical analysis, I find in both Crusius and Kant a concept of double (physical and moral) receptivity expressed by the term Fähigkeit, as well as a concept of Vermögen, bilaterally defined in relation to the traditional terms of potentia and facultas.
Keywords: Kant; Crusius, faculty; capacity; force, receptivity; sensibility; understanding; reason; metaphysics; Critical philosophy.

Paula Angelova (Assistant Professor, PhD at Paisii Hilendarski University of Plovdiv)
Towards a Phenomenology of Phantasy
Abstract: The main objective of the following article lies in detailed examination of core aspects of Husserl's phenomenology of phantasy, developed in his lecture course from 1904/1905. Scrutinizing similarities and differences between phantasy, image consciousness [Bildbewusstsein] and memory, Husserl distinguishes visual representations [anschauliche Vergegenwärtigungen], which differ from perception as presentation [Gegenwärtigung], from polysemous expression [Ausdruck] as non-intuitive representation. In consequence, his attempt results in reduction of phantasy to imagination [Imagination] or to image representation [Bildlichkeitsvorstellung]. However, Husserl's endeavour confronts the justified doubt in that possibility which he expresses explicitly in the lecture, but does not carry his intuition to its conclusion. In other words, phantasy acts, which have no image-object [Bildobjekt] in contrast to those of image consciousness, would lose their intentional character, and this would necessarily lead to radical transformation of phenomenology. Namely, this aporetic situation is the point of departure for Richir's refoundation of phenomenology in his work Phénoménologie en esquisses (2000), as far as phantasy incorporates the basis [Boden] for the most archaic register of phenomenology, primarily related to affectivity and corporeality [Leiblichkeit].
Keywords: imagination; phantasy; affectivity; perceptual phantasy; phenomenological field; Husserl; Richir.

Kristiyan Enchev (Associate Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Imagination of the Imagination and Image of the Image: Critical-Hermeneutical Observations
Abstract: The article traces elements of the conceptual apparatus of Kant, Husserl and Heidegger, and their continuations find a response and reinterpretation in modern discussions. Kant's triple synthesis in the context of Heidegger's “Book of Kant” serves as a starting point for mastering structural connections – concepts such as “image object” and “image subject” find their place through Darin Tenev's understanding of imagination of the imagination and image of the image.
Keywords: imagination of the imagination; image of the image; triple synthesis; image object; image subject.

Kosta Bentchev (PhD student at University of Veliko Tarnovo)
On Some Systemic Building Characteristics in the 'Essays' of Michel de Montaigne
Abstract: A short survey is conducted on the “architectonic” concepts lying behind the variety of Montaigne’s essays. This, according to the paradigmatic scheme for movement from the subjective (Spirit) through the objective (space) and their culmination into historicity (fate). Some elements of nominalism and pragmatism are being identified, along with elements of representationism in the field of epistemology. Special attention is drawn to the spatial characteristics of human emotional life according to the author, as well as to his ideas that supposedly stand close to deism and stoicism.
Keywords: Montaigne; essays; spirit; space; fate.

Stefan Dimitrov (Assistant Professor, PhD at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Two Medieval Semantic Theories. Terms and Parts of Speech
Abstract: There are two significant medieval semantic theories: the theory of supposition and the speculative grammar. The first one is focused on the suppositio of term – on its referential scope; the second one is focused on significatio (or consignificatio, or modi significandi) – on the general significations, reflecting the extra-mental reality, with which the part of speech is endowed. Thus, the term and the part of speech could be considered as the two main candidates for the basic semantic element of the scholastic semantics.
Keywords: semantics; supposition; supposition; term; speculative grammar; signification; signification; part of speech; pars orationis.

Jan Pinborg (29.04.1937–24.09.1982).
Speculative Grammar
Abstract: Jan Pinborg’s article Speculative Grammar traces in a historical and problematical way basic questions of the semantic doctrine of modes of signifying (the theory of speculative grammars). Speculative grammars are investigated: (1) from their appearance and historical and conceptual ground (Aristotle and his Arabic commentators, Donatus, Priscian); (2) through the development and sophistication of the system of modes of signifying (considering in the same time its ontological and logical aspects); 3) to the theoretical criticism against them and the appearance of alternative semantic conceptions (Roger Bacon, Ockham, Buridan…). The importance of the modistic doctrine for the further development of the logic and theoretical grammar is pointed out. A particular emphasis is put on the semantic character of the speculative grammars, together with its systematical account.
Keywords: speculative grammar; mode of signification; lexeme; dictio; part of speech; pars orationis; semantics.

Doroteya Angelova (Assistant Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Fuzzy Logic and Probability Logic: Main Similarities and Differences
Abstract: The main features of fuzzy set theory (fuzzy logic, respectively) and probability theory (probabilistic logics, respectively) are presented in the article. The examination of these two theories is connected with the main aim that is pursued – to present and analyse the similarities and the differences between them. In this regard, the focus of the study is mainly on their semantic and conceptual similarities and distinctions, although some purely formal ones are also not neglected.
Keywords: fuzzy set theory; probability theory; vagueness; uncertainty.

Elena Tsvetkova (Assistant Professor, PhD at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
On the Sense and Meaning in Speech Acts
Abstract: In this article, I consider certain types of presupposition and quantitative implicatures, the interpretation of which is based on the usage of scalar expressions. The aim is to explain how presuppositions and implicatures are processed by showing the commonalities and differences between them. Solving this task will shed light on the question of the relationship between language and context. The “scalar implicature approach to presuppositions” is reviewed as a prerequisite for explaining cases in which presuppositions and implicatures are treated in a similar way. The question of consideration is that even when scalar implicatures are understood automatically and independently of context, we have preliminary pragmatic models that predetermine context and influence the way we interpret such statements and how we arrange the terms on the scale. This approach is used as a prerequisite for the possibility of talking about degrees in the scales – i.e., cases of an utterance involving scalar expressions, where the same expression – both in presupposition and in an implicature – can mean something different to a certain degree, and yet the hearer grasp that degree of meaning without much additional effort in processing.
Keywords: scalar implicatures; presupposition; Horn; semantics; pragmatics.

Rosen Lyutskanov (Associate Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Reason-Based Decisions: The Allais Paradox and the Logic of Action
Abstract: The present paper introduces a novel formalism for analysis of practical arguments, called reason-based decision theory. In (§1) I provide an analogy between logic and decision theory, motivated by the role that reasons play in both fields of inquiry. (§2) elaborates on the idea of reason-based choice proposed by Shafir, Simonson, and Tversky (1993). In (§3) I illustrate how this idea can be applied to the analysis of the famous paradox of Allais. (§4) sketches the logical formalism of reason-based decision theory, while (§5) presents the different forms of practical argumentation. It is shown that they are sufficient for the solution of any dilemma. Finally, (§6) provides a game-theoretical semantics of the logical formalism and discusses the possibilities for its further elaboration.
Keywords: decision theory; Allais paradox; reasons; rationality; argumentation.

Ani Dimitrova (Teaching Professor, PhD at University of National and World Economy)
The Enlargement of the European Union and the Role of Ukraine
Abstract: The war in Ukraine has led to a fundamental rethinking of European security, with further enlargement of both the EU and NATO being discussed today. Kyiv demanded a quick procedure for membership in the European Union, and the EU has categorically shown that Ukraine belongs to the European family. Enlargement policy has proved to be one of the most successful instruments in promoting political, economic and social reforms, as well as in consolidating peace, stability and democracy in Europe, proving that the European Union's enlargement policy is not purely technical process, but a geopolitical tool that also requires a more strategic approach. As a result of EU support, Ukraine is pursuing an ambitious fiscal policy, institutions are showing increasing resilience in their efforts to guarantee democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect and protection of minorities. The present academic research examines the possible scenarios for the development of the European Union and the war in Ukraine from now on. The possible scenarios are separated into two groups, “Emotional” and “Temporal”, and the combination between the two groups allows a total of 9 possible scenarios to be outlined.
Keywords: EU; enlargement; Ukraine.

Lydia Kondova (Assistant Professor at Sofia University)
The Regression of Philosophical Beginning and the Hegelian Circle
Abstract: The paper aims to present Hegel’s specific solution to the problem of beginning’s regression in the perspective of the crucial historical-philosophical inquiries of late 18th and early 19th centuries’ post-Kantian idealism. This historical background gives the opportunity to enrich the Hegelian doctrine of the circular philosophical system with the thesis of causality’s sublation in the reciprocal interdependence of developmental moments. The mutual justification of the starting point and the result, as well as of every grade in-between, provides a positive resolution of the epistemological skepticism, namely, by introducing it as an integral part of the dialectical progress-regression.
Keywords: history of philosophy; Hegel; Reinhold; Fichte; post-Kantian idealism; circular reasoning; foundationalism; coherentism; reason; beginning; end; scepticism; causality; reciprocity.

Ivo Minkov (Assistant Professor at South-West University 'Neofit Rilski')
Quantitative Changes of Being in Hegel’s Logic
Abstract: The presented text performs a conceptual analysis of the second part of the doctrine of being in Hegel’s logic – quantity. The analysis is conducted through the prism of the principle of particularity, of the mediating function of the middle term in Hegel’s triad. The methodological potential of the middle term generates the possibility for differentiation and topological specification of philosophy and mathematics. Through the dialectical connection of quality and quantity (in the logical course of the transition from quality to quantity and the return of quantity back again to quality), the essence of the universal evolution of philosophical and mathematical knowledge is explained.
Keywords: quantity; principle of particularity; philosophy; mathematics; dialectic; mediation.

Elina Marcheva – “World and Cognition”. Published on the Occasion of the 70th Anniversary of Cor. Anguel S. Stefanov