Philosophical Alternatives 1/2024

Issue editors: Galin Penev
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Stefan Dimitrov (Assistant Professor, PhD at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS)
Consciousness, Object, Signification. The extramental Correlate of the Consciousness and the Question of Signification
Abstract: This paper is focused on an ontological account of three concepts in their constitutive interrelation: consciousness, object and signification. I would like in this way to set and answer to some extent to the question “What is the object?” The article doesn’t have a historic-philosophical character but in the same time it is often referring to exemplary conceptual statements.
Keywords: consciousness; constitution of being; object; ontology; significatio

Vladimir N. Nikitin (Professor, PhD, Head of the Department of Philosophical Anthropology and Art Therapy at the Moscow Social and Pedagogical Institute)
Gods Inside us: Relationship of Consciousness to Body
Abstract: The article is about the analysis of the results of the empirical research in which effect of images on mind’s condition of the recipients is in the focus. All of them are the participants of the prolonged study course of arts-therapeutical and transpersonal methods in the field of adjustment of stress conditions. In the article the indicators of encephalograms, which are fixed in the trans condition, and the content of the projective pictures are considered in respect to idiographiс issue. The interpretation of their meanings makes it possible to speak about integration of consciousness and body. The target of the research is that psychological and physical issues present the holistic field of a person that cannot be limited with the frame of assessment of psycho-somatic characteristics. In conclusion, to define relationship of consciousness to body in a right way is necessary to examine both objective and metaphysical forms of individual’s manifestations.
Keywords: consciousness, body, encephalogram, trance, arts therapy, image, idiographic issue, singularity

Ivelina Batskova (PhD student at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”)
When Metaphors Stop Being Metaphors
Abstract: The text examines the problem of metaphors and the extent to which their meaning can be considered conventional. First, Lakoff and Johnson's theory of conceptual metaphor is examined to show that metaphors define the way we think and perceive the world. Then, by means of Grice's theory of meaning, an attempt is made to show metaphors and their meaning as having pragmatic content depending on the context. Subsequently, Marmora's formula on social conventions is applied, which will help to show metaphors as arising from common acceptance and repetition of their meaning, to conclude that when metaphors are transformed into dead metaphors, society ceases to accept their meaning as metaphorical.
Keywords: metaphor; meaning; philosophy of language; language conventions; Grice; speaker meaning; social conventions

Abdul Awal (PhD student at University of Lodz, Poland)
English and Sustainable Language: Collective Consciousness in Bangladesh
Abstract: In modern times, sustainability plays an important role, also acceptable in sociolinguistic studies. The comparison of English and other languages in Bangladesh is examined from the point of view of sustainability. It has not yet been established whether the English language is sustainable or not in the context of Bangladesh and around the world. Most studies on sustainable development objectives neglect the relationship between sustainability and a particular country’s language. The purpose of this work is to expand our knowledge of how to measure the sustainable language based on specific indicators. The research first explored the development of Bangladesh’s English, sustainable languages, and collective consciousness. This approach is initially based on quantitative methods. Overall, these results suggest the sustainability of Bangladesh’s different languages. This study contributes to the field of a sustainable language genre in sociolinguistics. Keyword: Collective consciousness; environmental language; global language; language and development; sustainable language

Edmond Charley (PhD Graduate Student at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”)
Mental Health Analysis Using Philosophical Tenets
Abstract: Philosophical beliefs or principles can help healthcare providers establish effective approaches to mental health analysis. This article aims to demonstrate how modern philosophical tenets could improve mental health analysis from diagnosis to treatment. It describes the role and importance of philosophical approaches, including the Gadamer philosophical hermeneutics, in providing alternative approaches to mental illness treatments as an interdisciplinary field combining practical views and methods of the philosophies of mind, neuroscience, psychology, and moral philosophy. This is achieved by exploring the evolution of mental illnesses, the philosophical views on the manifestation of psychiatric disorders, scientific and philosophical viewpoints, and insights on applying Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics to mental illnesses. Gadamer’s viewpoints present essential philosophical foundations that could solve the crucial problems associated with the antecedent theories of mental illnesses. Overall, the philosophical viewpoint requires patient diagnosis and treatment approaches that holistically consider the use of language in all interpretive practices, cultural phenomena, patients' histories, and environmental factors that are critical sources of hermeneutic experiences.
Keywords: Mental health; philosophical tenets; Gadamer’s four concepts

Ivan Katzarski (Professor, PhD at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS)
Epigenetics, Social Sciences, Ethics and Politics
Abstract: The present study is based on the analysis and conclusions in a preceding paper by the author. Major interpretations of epigenetics are considered – social-ecological, biomedical and bioethical, – as well as their impact on social sciences and humanities, policies and opportunities for human development. The following important conclusions are formulated: firstly, epigenetics can be a stimulus to reform social sciences, as well as for policies aiming at purer environment, less poverty and social inequality, more freedom and less violence; (2) one-sided and implicit biomedical interpretation of epigenetics not only does not solve but intensifies existing problems relating to health and wellbeing of people in contemporary societies; (3) this however does not mean rejecting the biomedical approach but finding it’s appropriate and balanced place in the context of functioning ecological and social policies; (4) practices and behavioural models that epigenetics determines as sensitive presuppose respective responsibilities on the part of various subjects – organisations, institutions and pаrticular individuals. A critical evaluation is necessary of attempts to reject responsibilities as well as of their imbalanced distribution among various subjects.
Keywords: epigenetics; social sciences; ethics; policies; medicalization; behavioural models; responsibilities; human development

Nikolay Alexandrov (Doctor of Philosophy of Law and Politics, Doctor of Journalism at Veliko Tarnovo University “St. St. Cyril and Methodius”)
Friedrich von Hayek's Neoliberalism as an Attempt to Expose Collectivism and Economics
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the socio-philosophical legacy of Friedrich von Hayek, one of the founders of neoliberalism and a representative of the Austrian School of Economics. In this regard, this text is an attempt to rethink Hayek's work in three main aspects: as an initiator of the return of liberalism to its ideological foundations from the Enlightenment, as an ideologue of neoliberalism and as a consistent critic of Keynesian capitalism and socialism. Here are some weaknesses in his teaching, both in terms of capitalism and in terms of social liberalism and socialism.
Keywords: spontaneous order; neoliberalism; freedom; rationalism; Keynesian capitalism; socialism; market economy

Rositsa Filatova (Doctor at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”)
Principles and Values in the Field of Artificial Intelligence of the European Union
Abstract: It is crucial to promote the development and use of artificial intelligence in Europe by increasing investment, promoting excellence in AI-related technologies and strengthening cooperation in research and innovation. Artificial intelligence is rapidly entering our lives, covering an ever wider range of social relations. Given its importance and applicability, the deployment and use of artificial intelligence systems needs to be strictly regulated.
Keywords: European Union; artificial intelligence; principles; values; innovations

Stoyan Stavru (Professor, PhD at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, BAS)
Ownership and Residue: Between Inclusive Touch and Dominating Grasp
Abstract: This article explores the question of the boundaries of property rights and their significance for the concept of waste. The philosophical concepts of John Locke, Thorstein Veblen, and Jean Baudrillard are employed to reveal the possible extent of ownership as a human claim. The connections between touching, possession, and dispossession are examined, and various possible approaches to the philosophical and legal interpretation of residue are sought.
Keywords: property; residue; possession; consumption; waste