Philosophical Alternatives_4_2021

Issue editorс: Kamelia Zhabilova and Martin Tabakov
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & The authors in the issue

Dimitar Ganov ( PhD, Senior Assistant Professor at the IPS, BAS)
Peter Beron and Girls' Education in the 19th Century
ABSTRACT: The article examines the activities of Dr. Peter Beron as a pioneer and major donator for girls' education in Bulgaria, in the context of the development of this educational model in the 19th century. The study reveals the evident progressiveness of Beron's views against the background of the then prevailing attitude the functions of women's education. The author points out the social significance of Beron's donations and unrealized projects as compared with the teleology of private philanthropy and systematic state support for girls' education worldwide.
KEYWORDS: girls' education; new Bulgarian education; coeducation; donations; Peter Beron; state intervention in education.

Teodora Velkova ( PhD; teacher in 55 Secondary School Petko Karavelov, Sofia)
Peter Beron's Views on the Origin of Life Seen through the Prism of Evolutionism and the Theory of Intelligent Design
ABSTRACT: In this article, we will lean on one of Peter Beron's earlier monographs, The Origin of the Physical and Natural Sciences and Metaphysical and Moral Science, in which he states the general principles of his philosophy. For the purposes of the study, we will compare Beron's views on natural science with those of the proponents of the Darwinian theory of evolution and other contemporaneous evolutionary theories.
KEYWORDS: Peter Beron; natural sciences; Darwinian and Neo-Darwinian theory of evolution; Intelligent Design theory.

Peter Beron (1799(?)–1871)
Excerpts from Panéistèmia
ABSTRACT: A Bulgarian translation of excerpts from Dr. Peter Beron's largest work, the seven-volume Panépistème, published in Paris in 1861–1867.
KEYWORDS: Panépistème; Peter Beron.

Neli Bachvarova,(Associate Professor, retired) Martin Tabakov(Professor,retired)
A Dictionary of Unfamiliar Terms Used by Peter Beron
ABSTRACT: The text provides explanations of some of the unfamiliar terms used in the works of the Bulgarian scientist, encyclopedist and natural philosopher Dr. Peter Beron (1799(?)–1871)
KEYWORDS: Peter Beron; terminology.
Anguel S. Stefanov (Corresponding Member of BAS, Professor at the IPhS, BAS)
Once Again on Logic by Dr. Vassil Hadjistoyanov-Beron
ABSTRACT: The author has recently published a paper dedicated to the analysis of the logical, and prevalently philosophical, content of the book Logic, written by Dr. Vassil Hadjistoyanov-Beron in 1861. This article sets itself a different additional task: to explicate three different aims pursued by Dr. V. Beron, which are based on three congenial, yet different motivations for his cultural ambition to present educational dimensions to the enlightened Bulgarian readers of his book.
KEYWORDS: Logic, written by Dr. Vassil Hadjistoyanov-Beron in 1861; three congenial yet different aims pursued by the author.

Radina Bogomirova
– Historian at the IPhS, BAS
Dr. Vasil Beron and his Contribution to Archaeology in Bulgaria
ABSTRACT:: The article presents some preliminary findings on Dr. Vasil Beron's contriburtion to Bulgarian archaeology. The study covers issues related to the history of archaeology in Bulgaria; more specifically, its beginnings and initial stages of development. Dr. Vasil Beron (1824–1909) was one of the initiators of archaeological research during the Bulgarian National Revival. He was a member of the Beron family of Kotel and a close relative (a nephew) to Dr. Petar Beron. The article explores an additional aspect of his versatile activities, namely, his pioneering contribution to archaeological research on the old Bulgarian capital Tarnovo. The text begins by outlining the personality traits of Dr. Vasil Beron and what urged him, a physician by training and occupation, to undertake archaeological and historical research on the city in which he had settled; the article also devotes attention to the state of archaeological research and knowledge in Bulgaria at that time. Also, the author examines more generally Beron's overall archaeological activities and investigations of Tarnovo's monuments of material culture and art dating to the times of the Second Bulgarian state.
KEYWORDS: history of science; history of Bulgarian archaeology; pioneers of archaeology; Vasil Beron; organization of science; regional research; dissemination of knowledge; popularization of knowledge.
Dimitar Tsatsov – DSc., Professor at the University of Veliko Tarnovo St. Cyril and St. Methodius
Dimitar Mihalchev's Transition from the Ideas of Wilhelm Schuppe to the Conception of Johannes Rehmke
ABSTRACT:According to the past hypothesis regarding Dimitar Mihalchev's transition from the ideas of Wilhelm Schuppe to those of Johannes Rehmke, this shift concluded in the autumn of 1905. However, a newly discovered letter indicates the end date was actually in July of that year. Mihalchev's motive to adopt Rehmke's ideas and to abandon Schuppe's views was the Bulgarian philosopher's strongly critical attitude to neo-Kantianism and particularly to Windelband's and Rickert's conceptions of knowledge and values.
KEYWORDS: Schupðe; Rehmke; neo-Kantianism; knowledge.

Dimitar Elchinov
– Associate Professor at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski
Two Theories of Scientific Explanation in Bulgarian Philosophy
ABSTRACTThe article presents the philosophical views of two contemporary Bulgarian authors, Lilia Gurova and Serghey Gherdjikov, regarding the problem of scientific explanation. Their two conceptions are analyzed in terms of their mutual similarities and differences, as well as certain advantages and disadvantages their respective views comprise in the discussion on the problem of scientific explanation. The aim is to lend a degree of cohesion to the fragmented Bulgarian literature related to the issue of scientific explanation.
KEYWORDS: science; explanation; normativism; descriptivism; reductionism; inferentialism.

Krasimir Delchev
– DSc., Professor at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski
Stephan Popov's New European Philosophy of History
ABSTRACT: The article analyzes Stephan Popov's philosophy of history.
KEYWORDS: philosophy of history; nation.
Nikolay Turlakov – Assistant Professor at the IPhS, BAS
Humility and Justification or Rebellion and Struggle: Philosophical Notes on the Attitude to Suffering in Religious Faith and Customary Morality
ABSTRACT: In this paper, I consider an essential difference between religious faith and morality with regard to their respective attitudes towards suffering. Humility and justification or rebellion and struggle against suffering – this is the framework in which I try to outline the difference in question and to trace the choices made by heroes such as Sisyphus, Abraham and Job, and literary characters such as Zossima, Father Ferapont, Ivan and Alyosha Karamazov, Dr. Rieux and Jean Tarrou. Based on the example of these characters, I find that certain acts of unconditional religious faith dismiss the bad human conditions and earthly purposes (pain, suffering, bodily need, etc.), in contrast to the norms and maxims of morality deriving from people in their joint human existence and struggle. Insofar as religious faith is first and foremost turned to itself (it is a personal feeling that relates to the individual in his individuality) and is intended to achieve salvation (deliverance, healing, the attainment of Nirvana, etc.) of the believer's soul, it can be said that faith in one's attitude to life is ultimately a personal attitude (stemming from fear, reverence, or love) of man towards God or towards the divine. By contrast, acts of morality stem primarily from a perspective on human existence as coexistence with others, from empathy for others based not on the faith they share with us, but on the fact that they feel, understand and share with us the common destiny of vulnerable but authentic human beings.
KEYWORDS: absurd; suffering; choice; faith; morality; rebellion, struggle; freedom; authenticity.

Ema Angelova
– student at the Faculty of Philosophy, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski
The Headstone as a Business Card and the Bulgarian Attitudes toward Death (A Comparative Analysis of Bulgarian and American Headstones)
ABSTRACT: The article deals with the influence of culture on attitudes toward death. The objects of research are a specific element of Bulgarian and American culture: a comparison is made between headstones, and the social markers engraved on them, in Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery and in the Central Sofia Cemetery. The results of the conducted content analysis indicate that the professional status of the deceased is marked more often on gravestones in Bulgarian culture than in American, while the reverse relationship is present with regard to the marking of interpersonal status and family affiliation. Sentimental symbols and symbols with a purely decorative purpose are more common in the American sample, while such symbolic images are generally less present on Bulgarian headstones, but when they do occur there, they serve as a complementary marker of the professional status of the deceased more often than is the case in the American sample. The author looks for the cause of these results in the national psychology and the specific historical development of the two cultures, which were chosen in view of the significant cultural differences between them.
KEYWORDS: death; headstones; cross-cultural differences; social status.
Doroteya Angelova – PhD, Associate Professor at the IPhS, BAS
Application of Fuzzy Logic and the Fuzzy Hypercube in Medicine
ABSTRACTFuzzy sets and fuzzy logic provide adequate logical means for incorporating vague medical terms and statements into logical reasoning. In this regard, I will try to justify the potential of fuzzy logic as well as of a specific semantic approach that I have constructed for the correct analysis, interpretation and solving of the problem of higher-order vagueness, which appears in medicine. Another main focus of the article is the presentation of the role of the fuzzy hypercube for the geometric interpretation of medical terms and states.

KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic; fuzzy sets; medicine; fuzzy hypercube; vagueness; heterogeneous approach.
Silviya Kristeva – Associate Professor at South-West University Neofit Rilski
The Philosophical Faculty of South-west University Neofity Rilski: 25 Years

Nonka Bogomilova DSc., Professor at the IPhS, BAS; Silviya Kristeva – Associate Professor at South-West University Neofit Rilski
On Prof. Valentin Kanavrov's Kantian Pentalogy