Philosophical Alternatives 5/2022

Issue editor: Nikolay Mihaylov
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Nonka Bogomilova (Professor, DSc at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Philosophy with a Cause
Abstract: The paper discusses and analyzes the specificities of the creative interpretation as a reading comprehension. The creative product, especially in philosophy with a cause, is described as a personal projection of the author in the light of his/her professional background, values preferences, existential psychology. A special attention is paid to the value aspect of the creative process and the role of the author’s attitude within it. The studies in the philosophical-anthropological sphere are debated within the same perspective; the intellectual and the social challenges the author usually meets in this process are discussed.
Keywords: philosophy with a cause; creative product; author’s personality; value conditioning; cultural context; social conditioning.

Hristo Gagov (Professor at Sofia University, Faculty of Biology)
Levels of Information in Human DNA, Body Structures, Personality and Free Will (I)
Abstract: DNA information linked to its coding, regulatory and structural regions and their connection with biological structures and functions are discussed, as well as the organization levels, namely molecular, organellar, cellular, tissular, organic, and organismic, which realize this information. Furthermore, the role of DNA in changes during human growth and development is reviewed. The direct or indirect connection of emotions, motivations, habits, character, personal worldview and behaviour with DNA is also commented on. Finally, the determinism of personal choice or its lack, and the influence of drug abuse and psychological dependencies are discussed.
Keywords: DNA; structures; time; free will; determinism.

Stephan Penov (Professor, DSc at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Dialectic, Determination, Freedom and Self-Consciousness Mind (II)
Abstract: The second article focuses on dialectical logic, biological and spiritual determination, freedom of choice, consciousness and Self-consciousness, as well as on non-evolutionary development. A correlation analysis was carried out, on the one hand: between organic structures, neurophysiology, events of the bodily organism and, on the other hand, mental processes, states and formations, especially free will or creativity, as well as cognitive functions, consciousness and self-conscious Mind. Here consciousness can be a determinant, and information is a mediator between Mind and body.
Keywords: dialectical logic; determination; freedom; consciousness; self-consciousness mind; mind-body problem.

Silviya Mineva, Desislava Vasileva (Professor at Sofia University; PhD student at Sofia University)
Expropriation of Data, Digital Beings and Dehistoricization in the Era of Post-human Capitalism
Abstract: The modern technological situation of interaction and universal connectivity of intelligent systems, smart platforms and artificial intelligence puts humanity in front of new moral and existential problems that affect its future as a species and humane treatment as the basis of fundamental human values – justice, freedom, well-being. In this context, the authors offer their analysis of the human-data nexus, the mass digital practice of personal data expropriation and the hidden coercion behind it as a new kind of enslaving addiction – digital slavery. According to the authors, this slavery can be considered a result of the emergence and development of the so-called post-human capitalism – a term introduced by Y. Ibrahim to denote the use of technological possibilities for data processing in the service of extracting added value and capitalizing on new spheres of life. The main conclusion is that dealing with new technological threats cannot rely on legal regulation alone and needs a humanitarian reading and revision of the principles driving social, economic and societal progress.
Keywords: data expropriation; posthuman capitalism; digital slavery; personal data; alienation; dehistoricization.

Krasimir Delchev (Professor, DSc at Sofia University)
Contemporary Biopolitics: Covert Guardianship Through Artificial Intelligence and Deprivation of Adulthood in the Digital Age by Countries in a Permanent State of Emergency
Abstract: The article analyzes the actual biopolitics and nonage.
Keywords: biopolitics; nonage.

Gergana Farkova (Associate Professor at Sofia University)
The Commercialization of Patriotism
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of the commercialization of patriotism and its use in contemporary advertising as a factor to increase consumption. Patriotism and advertising have been going side by side since the beginning of mass media. Both are linked to the idea and practice of democratic persuasion, of communicating our views, values, and actions (products) as the best. This study compares patriotic marketing in America with patriotic marketing in the recent advertising campaigns of some well-known Bulgarian brands. Using these specific examples, we analyze the main features of the new marketing practices and campaigns in Bulgaria on the wave of patriotism.
Keywords: patriotism; patriotic marketing; advertising; ethnocentrism; bulgarian patriotic commercials.

Latchezar Tomov, Diana Vargolomova (Assistent Professor at New Bulgarian University; Assistant Professor at Sofia University)
Aesthetics in Natural and Formal Languages
Abstract: Тhe complexity of messages, their readability or understandability and the subjective feeling for aesthetic value have interesting interrelations. In our research we claim that in natural languages, perceived as a multimodal complex whole, in formal languages, and in mathematics as a metalanguage, messages in individual modalities that convey maximum information with minimum complexity are more difficult to perceive (less readable), but are aesthetically more attractive; while if the message is multimodal, it is both more readable and more beautiful.
Keywords: аesthetics; mathematics; natural languages; beauty; multimodality.

Emil Yordanov (Architect, Associate Professor at Sofia University; PhD student at the University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy)
Psychosocial Derivatives from Architecture – Three Theories
Abstract: In the context of the theoretical uncertainty of the phenomenon of Architecture, two opposing positions are compared, after some similarities between them have been identified. One belongs to the author, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arch. Emil Yordanov, to which he dedicated a monograph. The idea is to clarify the phenomenon of Architecture by delving into the stages of its development, in parallel with the determining stages in the development of culture and mentality. Within this interaction, personal architectural professionalism is being cultivated. The other position – of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Arch. Todor Tsigov, accepts Architecture as a myth, whose utilitarian and artistic sides are (respectively) real and similar, i. e. – qualitatively different manifestations of essence, that do not interact objectively: two autonomous objects in a common entity. The interaction with the real manifestations of essence turns out to be a ritual towards the similar, mythologising them as real. Out of this follows the suggestive potential of Architecture and a conclusion about the architectural nature of perceptions and the religious nature of the psyche. The comparison between the two thesises reveals unusual aspects of the phenomenon Architecture – beyond the professional practice, with humanitarian and philosophical significance.
Keywords: architecture; philosophy; history; religion; psychology; suggestion.

Valeri Lichev (Associate Professor at Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The Remake as a Political Metaphor
Abstract: The article examines the various forms of metaphorical use of the term "remake" in the Bulgarian political discourse. They refer to: A) the general knowledge of political leaders; B) the electoral cycle; C) corruption practices; D) protest actions. In all these cases, the metaphorical transfer carries a negative value charge, insofar as it means the absence of new projects and visions for the social reality. Attention is drawn to the “reverse mimesis” which, unlike Aristotle, means the imitation or reproduction of patterns borrowed from the field of verbal and visual arts in public life.
Keywords: reverse remake; corruption; tragedy; farce.

Liuben Sivilov (Professor, DSc at Sofia University, 1944–2021)
The Bishop and the Philosophers: Békésy (Part Two)
Abstract: In a series of six articles the reactions of philosophers to the epochal achievement of Bishop Berkeley, set out in his “An Essay Towards A New Theory of Vision” are traced. The comments on the theory of Berkeley became an occasion for the modern reader to focus on the overwhelming conclusions about the philosophical life and philosophical education in Bulgaria. The fifth article deals with Georg von Békésy.
Keywords: ear; unity of senses; inhibition.

Nikolay Mihaylov (Professor at Sofia University)
Emilia Mineva or About the Philosophy as Seeking for Truth and as a Life‘s Work
Abstract: Associate Professor Emilia Mineva was an established university teacher and historian of philosophy. Her rich body of work encompasses a study of the heritage of philosophical ideas in the 19th century with an emphasis, but not exclusively, on studies of Marxist philosophy, intellectual history of anarchism, philosophical ethics, etc. The field of her scientific interest included topics from all areas of philosophical knowledge, which she summarized as an author, editor, translator, and compiler. The article traces the professional path of prof. E. Mineva, focusing on the important moments in the content of her philosophical works, and is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of her birth.
Keywords: Emilia Mineva; history of philosophy; Marxist philosophy; anarchism; ethics; philosophical methodology; knowledge; Bulgarian philosophy.

Emilia Mineva (Associate Professor at Sofia University, 1942–2020)
Civil Society: Ideas and Implementation
Abstract: The ideas (theoretical concepts) of civil society and their practical implementations in social processes are in historical-specific functional dependence. With the category civil society we mean both a specific type of interaction between societies and the state, as well as society, as a result of whose active position this type of interrelationship is achieved and maintained. The formation of a civil society is organically related to the objective-subjective prerequisites that give rise to it. The public debate on the formation of civil society in Bulgaria is the responsibility and obligation of Bulgarian intellectuals, who have the necessary historical-theoretical and methodological knowledge.

Keywords: civil society; Bulgarian civil society; values; freedom; ideology; democracy.

Tatyana Batuleva – The Adventure of Colours
Margarita Pesheva – The New “Digital Mediamorphosis” of Sharing