Philosophical Alternatives 4/2019

Issue editor: Nikolay Mihaylov
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & The authors in the issue

Gergana Farkova ( PhD, Lecturer at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Classical and Modern Philology)
The Role of the Cultural Factor in the Transmission of Advertising Strategies
:With the expansion of globalization, more and more companies are considering ways to ensure success through effective marketing. But is it always possible to create a worldwide uniform brand image? Many companies have realized that even the universal needs of consumers are determined by differing attitudes and mental patterns of thought, behavior and communication. Of all marketing tools, advertising is the one most dependent on cultural codes, language and symbolism, for its purpose is to give social meanings to products. On this basis, the rule “think global, act local” ensures better communication and more powerful presentation because understanding in communication is based on shared cultural knowledge. This comparative study analyzes the transformations of brand slogans in Bulgaria and other markets, and points out many fundamental socio-cultural features. Evidently, not only the content of the message, but also its rhetorical diversity is determined by differing cultural values and expectations.
Keywords: globalization; marketing; advertising; language; slogan; communication; cultural differences.

Nikola Vangelov (Assist. Prof. at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication )
The Ethics of Advertising Communication
: The article analyzes the main aspects of advertising as a form of marketing communication. It reveals that it is not the root of all evil but a mere instrument, which, falling into the wrong hands, might be harmful for human values, might influence opinions in ways that would be damaging for the whole sector. The author discusses advertising as a mirror that reflects human values and norms.
Keywords:advertising; marketing; marketing communications; social values; social advertising.

Nikolay Mihaylov
(Professor at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication)
The Digital Media and Changes in the Public Sphere
: The article deals with changes that have taken place in the public sphere as a result of the digital revolution in the dissemination and processing of information. The term “public sphere” is used here in the sense it has for Habermas. Habermas, however, bases his conclusions mainly on studies of the printed media. The digital media have radically changed the way in which information is perceived, systematized, disseminated, analyzed, etc. The changes brought about by the social networks, their impact on the public sphere, are particularly significant. The article attempts to describe the different dynamics of the connection between private and public in the context of the global digital networks, and addresses the question as to how these networks change the very content of the public sphere.
Keywords: digital media; ethics; public sphere; communication; social media.

Joe A. Momoh (PhD Graduate Student at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Philosophical Faculty)
“What Characterizes a Dialogue?”: A Discussion on Gadamer's Concept of Dialogue and the Place of the “Other”
: In day-to-day discourse, human beings engage in dialogue. Problems arise in the interpretation of language; according to Gadamer, these problems are the basis of hermeneutics (Gadamer 1989: 455). In Truth and Method, Gadamer seeks to provide a link between culture and the understanding of the interpretation of language. Most importantly, Gadamer is concerned with what understanding the “others” have of the information they receive or read and how they make sense of this information, taking into consideration the cultural implications.
Keywords:dialogue; the “Other”; society; language; culture; hermeneutics.
Ani Dimitrova (PhD Graduate Student at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The President as Guarantor of the Irreversible Democratization of Bulgarian Society
:The article aims to clarify the relatively short history of the presidential institution in the Bulgarian national state tradition. In conclusion, the author emphasizes that the figure of the president stands out as central to the introduction, establishment and upholding of democratic values in Bulgarian society. The author believes the presidential institution does not represent a parallel center of power, but is a neutral authority that has a function of its own and a specific influence upon the three branches of government (legislative, executive and judiciary) and Bulgarian society. It is noted that the president is obliged to meet the expectations, and respond to the demands, of the public and the country's institutions. The presidential institution must function and uphold the values of society, such as security, employment, education and the right to free initiative. More significant actions have to be taken by the head of state, such as preserving the unity of the nation and ensuring and guaranteeing the democratic development of Bulgarian society.Throughout its existence and development, the presidential institution has strongly and consistently encouraged the competent state organs to undertake real steps in the fight against corruption and poor government. These goals and activities have made the presidential institution a generator of ideas and a platform for debate on important public issues; the institution attempts to set the agenda when there is a risk that the belief in the democratic character of institutions may be compromised.
Keywords:President; democratization; society.

Veselin Bosakov (Assist. Prof. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
History in the Time of Globalization
: Contemporary society is undergoing a radical transformation, which poses challenges to Enlightenment-based modernity. Today, we live in a time of disasters and insecurity; because of this, the situation is associated with the term “risk” rather than “progress” and “optimism”. The risk society is a society that does not trust the future. Whether the reference is to postmodernity (Bauman, Lyotard, Harvey, Haraway), late modernity (Giddens), global age (Albrow), or reflexive modernization (Beck, Giddens, Lash), the emphasis invariably falls on the incompleteness of the human project in the context of increasing complexity and insecurity. In terms of system theory, the unforeseen effect of functional differentiation can no longer be controlled by further differentiation. Risk is an institutionalized experience, a cognitive map used to colonize the future. The regime of risk is a function of a global order, not a national one. In this situation, history is perceived as a loss of a world, as a world that, because of globalization, is rapidly moving towards disappearance. Nostalgia arises as a specific form of resistance to the modern understanding of time, to the instant in history and to progress. Nostalgia produces emotions and emotions are a fertile soil for populism. History is entering the sphere of “popular cyberculture”, and as a result, historical culture is changing and the past is acquiring a new cyber appearance seen in distorting mirrors.
Keywords:history; globalization; populism; nostalgia; nationalism.

Nicolas Gomez Davila (Colombian thinker and writer (1913–1994), author of several volumes of aphorisms)
The Authentic Reactionary
: This short text presents Davila's understanding of freedom and history beyond the notions of necessity, on the one hand, and arbitrariness, on the other hand, as well as beyond the rigid perspective of a unified dialectical-historical development. This understanding is embodied in the figure of the reactionary, who by his ideas, stands on the arena of modern times in opposition to the representative of necessity – the radical progressive, and the representative of historical arbitrariness – the liberal progressive. The authentic reactionary carries serene optimism, as he looks from the impasse of his situation in the present world towards a new horizon of essences, i.e., as he looks entirely beyond the world.
Keywords:radical progressive; liberal progressive; historical necessity; freedom.
Lyuben Sivilov (DSc, Professor at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Philosophical Faculty)
The Magical Basis of Consciousness
:The author uses the descriptions of magic in Homer to distinguish between three components of magic: 1) the impression made by magic, which is somewhat similar to the philosophical terms “astonishment”, “amazement”, “surprise”; 2) the capacity for discrimination, which functions similarly to dialectics; 3) its kinship with science, which becomes evident when the achievements of cosmology, art, biopsychology, neurology, are interpreted in a relevant way. Through such an analysis, it becomes easy to identify the magical techniques lying at the basis of human consciousness.
Keywords:consciousness; magical impression; tolerance; repression; imagination.

Krasimir Delchev (DSc., Professor at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Philosophical Faculty)
The Renaissance Skepticism of Sanchez in Quod nihil scitur
:The article analyzes the skepticism of Francisco Sanchez.

Iliya Rusenov (PhD Graduate Student at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Philosophical Faculty)
Experimental Philosophy between Science and the Humanities
:Experimental philosophy relies on traditional philosophy to define the problems by which traditional philosophy objectifies its theories. As opposed to this approach, experimental philosophers strive to distinguish their colleague's intuitions from folk intuitions, with regard to notions such as free will, determinism, the afterlife, moral responsibility. According to experimental philosophers, a theory can be verified through an empirical database, using inventories, questionnaires and even case studies. Thus, a philosopher's concept of moral responsibility should not be taken for granted; instead, in striving for certainty, a philosopher's theory should be compared with that of non-philosophers. This method does not devalue the philosopher's opinion but rather supports philosophical concepts and theory with empirical data. Experimental philosophers tend to explore intuitions in order to find which beliefs are intuitively produced and which are not. Also, how large and significant is the difference between the intuitions of philosophers and those of ordinary people. A good way to find the answer is to survey both groups and see how their answers differ. In the article, the author explores what kind of intuitions philosophers and ordinary people have and share, and to what extent philosophical theories can be confirmed or rejected on the basis of a comparative analysis between the responses of these two groups.
Keywords:experimental; philosophy; intuitions; folk; people; x-phi.
Iva Kuyumdjieva (Assist. Prof. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The Values, Power and Culture of the Internet

Kamelia Zhabilova
(Assist. Prof. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
A Bulgarian Philosophical Canon?

Veselin Bosakov
(Assoc. Prof. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Boris Chendov