Philosophical Alternatives 3/2023

Issue editors: Ani Dimitrova, Nikolay Mihaylov
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Nikolay Nenovsky (Prof. D.Sc. at LEFMI – Laboratory of Economics, Finance, Management, and Innovation of University Jules Verne in Amiens, France; SU HSE, Department of Theoretical Economics, Moscow, Russia)
A Theory of Money Without a Theory of Value. The Approach of Peter Berngardovich Struve (1870–1944)
In the article are presented the main logical points through which Peter Struve (1870–1944) explained the functioning of exchange and the coordination of individual economic activities. Value and the theory of value are eliminated. In its mildest form, it is subordinated to the theory of price and the theory of money. Accounting and statistics, as well as legal norms, became leading mechanisms for measuring individual human efforts. Peter Struve can be seen as a prominent representative of monetary analysis (if one follows Joseph Schumpeter's famous classification in his History of Economic Analysis).
Keywords: theory of value; theory of prices; theory of money; Peter Struve

Shouyi Zhang (PhD and researcher at LEFMI – Laboratory of Economics, Finance, Management, and Innovation of University of Picardie Jules Verne in Amiens, France)
Philosophical Framework of the Economic Practice in Ancient China
Subsistence smallholder economy known as the inherent production mode in ancient China hides a lot of mysteries. What is the philosophical framework behind it? How did it come about and last for two millenniums? Why did it lead China to a great prosperity in agricultural era but did not evolute furthermore? This paper offers as a tentative explanation a line of logic, where pan-humanist philosophy evolves a humanity basis and morality standard in economic practice along with Legalist approach.
Keywords: Chinese philosophy; economic thought; smallholder economy; Legalism

Hicham Hachem (PhD and researcher at Laboratoire d’Economie, Finance, Management et Innovation, Amiens, France, and Conservatoire de Arts et Métiers, Beirut, Lebanon; Director at the Lebanese Ministry of Economy)
The Existence Paradigm and the Antinomy of the Liar in Mathematical Economics
Early contributions in Walrasian general equilibrium analysis led to logical problems that are remnants of the foundations debate in mathematics. The problem of existence of equilibrium in a competitive economy was at the core of this research program. This was however a loaded question since it admits different methodological approaches and interpretations. By tracing back the problem to the foundations of mathematics this paper aims to identify logical implications of the existence paradigm in Walrasian theory. Grounded on a bird’s eye overview of the history of ideas in early mathematical economics, the distinction is made between different interpretations of the question in relation with axiomatics and models of competitive economies. This leads to the conclusion that in general equilibrium theory, the problem set to provide consistency or existence proofs entails logical implications about the antinomy of liar and the rationale of doctrines in economics.
Keywords: Mathematical Economics; General Equilibrium Theory; Rules of Inference; Consistency Proofs; Antinomy of the Liar

Ani Dimitrova (Doctor of Political Philosophy and Master of Economics, part-time lecturer at the University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Benjamin Franklin's Economic Moralism and the Spirit of American Capitalism
Benjamin Franklin brought forward the principles of natural law and morality as the main element in judging the particular acts of human behavior and which of his actions are right or wrong, good or harmful to others around them. His view of democratic citizenship is at the heart of creating a democratic society in which questions of the citizenship, the federalism, the constitutional government, the role of civil association, and religious freedom are freely debated. He introduced the rationality in the actions, and the skepticism in planning and implementation, not only in politics but also in life as at the base of the pyramid of prescriptions stand virtues as a manifestation of high intelligence. He was the statesman at the heart of the formation of the young American nation's mentality, and some of his thoughts gave rise to the most powerful economy in the world. For many, Franklin is in many ways an exceptional historiographical case, encompassing the global emergence of political economy and at the same time codifying a typically capitalist ethos.
Keywords: Virtues; Benjamin Franklin; moral concepts

Dimitar Stankov (Prof. D.Sc. at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Metaphysics of Love
This article is intended as an essay about love. I regard love as one of the wonders of the world, as the most beautiful and great human feeling – an expression of the innermost experiences of the human heart and human soul.
Keywords: metaphysics; love; platonic love; passion; wonders of the world; feelings; heart and soul; happiness

Hristo Hristov (Doctor of Philosophy)
Ralph Cudworth and His Role in the History of the Moral Philosophy in Early Modern Period
Sarah Hutton, renowned scholar of Ralph Cudworth’s philosophy in the present day, notes that Cudworth himself has constructed a conception of the human mind that lies at the root of most fully developed philosophical psychology that a representative of Seventeenth-Century Cambridge Platonists has ever endowed in the terms of his own intellectual heritage. Cudworth had turned his attention to the philosophical tradition of Platonism, especially to the Plotinus’ Enneads, to have developed the same philosophical psychology distinguished by its notion of the soul like self-determining entity having many faculties: intellectual, vital, and moral. On account of this state of affairs Hutton presumes that it is rightfully to think Cudworth undoubtedly to have carried out real theory of mind that has yielded explanations about discernible experience in relation to the human mental states. Hutton rightly thinks on account of that statement that the definitions of the essence of the soul Plotinus has presented in his Enneads, IV, are substantial part of Cudworth’s philosophical psychology that places emphasis on the notion of the soul like self-determining and ruling entity in the realm of mental processes in human vital experience. That soul according to Cudworth can in the same time sympathize with the phenomena of this experience. Here I propose discussion on these issues. I posit that Cudworth had relied on his notion of the soul when he had developed his own epistemology in relation to the conception of morality and freewill that he had been working out. Accordingly I maintain that the moral philosophy of Cudworth within this frame of reference has had its influence on the further development of the moral philosophy in Britain.
Keywords: Cambridge Platonists; Ralph Cudworth’s philosophy in the present day; Sarah Hutton; moral philosophy in Britain; notion of the soul like self-determining entity

Monika Panayotova (Assistant Profassor at University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria)
Can the European Union Be a “Change Master” in the Climate Change – Defence Nexus?
This article examines the “climate change – defence” nexus in order to identify opportunities for unlocking the EU's potential as a “change master” in a complex world. The paper aims, on the one hand, to showcase the Union as a “multidimensional power” with a unique toolkit for action and, on the other hand, to explore the EU's capacity to be a “change agent” in the green transition and the defence sector's involvement in it. A 'multidimensional power' is defined as a combination of aspects and tools of – soft, economic, normative, military, transformative, smart and tranquil powers. By implementing the Moss Kanter's innovative approach from the theory of change and exploring the numerous documents and initiatives generated by the European institutions in the last three years, the publication seeks to answer to what extent the Union has the capabilities to be a "master of change", namely to adapt to the environment and to identify new opportunities, threats and ideas; to use kaleidoscopic thinking; to communicate a clear vision and inspire others, to create coalitions, to work through teams, not to be discouraged by obstacles and to recognise everyone's contribution. As a result, it is concluded that while the Union has all the prerequisites to be a “change master” on climate change and defence issues, this potential is not yet unlocked, as: on the one hand, there is an imbalance between high proactivity by the European institutions and moderate caution in implementation by the Member States, and on the other hand, communication deficits exist regarding the EU's global green transformation efforts and investments. The sooner it is realised globally that the time is changing us, but we are changing it too, the sooner action will be taken on both the environmental footprint and the defence sector's contribution to climate emergency issues.
Keywords: climate-security nexus; climate change – defence nexus; power; climate emergency; environment; CSDP; change master; military; EDF; SDGs

Galin Durev (Doctor of Political Sciences at Sofia University ‘St. Kliment Ohridski’)
From Partocracy to Mediacracy: Media in the Political Sphere
The article examines essential aspects of the development of the media, which led to relations of interdependence with the sphere of politics. Due to their nature, the most affected by this process are the political parties, encountering increasing difficulties in their adaptation to modern conditions. The main analysis is focused on the interference of the media in some basic functions of the parties, which adversely affects the development of representative democracy.
Keywords: media; political parties; representative democracy; political sphere