Philosophical Alternatives 2/2023

Topic of the issue: HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY (
Issue editors: Tatyana Batuleva and Nina Dimitrova
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords & Authors in the issue

Philosophical Alternatives 2/2023

Aleksandar Gungov (Prof. DSc. at Sofia University ‘St. Kliment Ohridski’)
The Mutual Conditioning Between the Eidetic and the Genetic Method in Husserl's Philosophical Logic
Abstract: The principle characteristics of Husserl’s eidetic and genetic method have been elucidated in connection to transcendental criticism, intersubjective constitution, various types of evidence, fulfilled intentionality, and eidetic intuition. The mutual interdependence of both methods is discussed stressing the leading role of the eidetic method. Special attention is paid to the term “deceptive evidence”; it is explained how through the combined efforts of both methods the deceptive evidence can be identified and overcome. The primordial function of circular teleology based on transcendental Ego’s inherent teleology is underlined.
Keywords: eidetic and genetic method; circular teleology; deceptive evidence; transcendental Ego; intersubjective constitution

Georgi Donev (Associate Professor at South-West University ‘Neofit Rilski’, Blagoevgrad)
A Metaphysical Ontologization of Consciousness
Abstract: The article substantiates the understanding of critical metaphysics as transcendental thinking, which defines the limits of transcendental consciousness. Transcendent thinking is explicated as a fundamental pre-object form of synthesis, which determines through non-classical logical language the existence of the possible objects of thought and knowledge. The thesis that the ontologization of consciousness is a relative form of thinking that constructs the interpretations of existence is substantiated. In this sense, ontology is understood as a universal comparability of interpretations that are a priori non-contradictory. On this basis, a reconstruction of the Platonic metaphysical understanding of the One and its rational explication through Kant's transcendental logic was realized.
Keywords: transcendental thinking; transcendental consciousness; ontological form of being; phenomenology

Nina Dimitrova (Professor, DSc. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The Anti-Philosophy of Lev Shestov
Abstract: The text discusses specific features of Lev Shestov's philosophical style, highlighting the main accents in it even with his first works, Shestov gained the reputation of a philosopher who denied philosophy. The following philosophical figures are discussed the paradoxicalist, the groundless man, the anti-dogmatist and the anti-metaphysician, etc., emblematic of Shestov. Important facts from his biography are examined, the totality of which could be part of the explanation for the originality of his thought, one of which is the lack of an academic philosophical education. Other relevant facts are the ethnic background as well as unusual circumstances of his early years. Special attention is paid to the relationship between Shestov and Husserl regarding the understanding of philosophy(the main opposition is between the conception of philosophy as a reflection Besinnung, and of philosophy as a struggle) the main stages in these relations are traced chronologically. Finally, Shestov's opinion on Indian thought, which he began to get to know and deal with since 1934, is presented, and his dissatisfaction with this thought is also discussed.
Keywords: Lev Shestov; philosophy and religion; reflection and revelation; Athens and Jerusalem; E. Husserl

Yana Stefanova (Assistant Professor, PhD at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
The Philosophical Sense of the translatory-interpretive technique of the Geyi
Abstract: The article aims to present the controversy surrounding the geyi's translation and interpretation technique, which was used in the third and fourth centuries in China, commonly translated as "matching concepts", which is the most distinct manifestation of the adaptation of Buddhist concepts to classical Taoist doctrines. For this purpose, its basic philological and philosophical interpretations of the term are presented. Studying the spread and adaptation of Buddhist doctrines in China gives the unique opportunity to balance these two opposing positions. The very specificity of the philosophical sense of the translator and the interpretive technique of the geyi is considered in its aspect as one of the main factors that shaped the features of Chinese Buddhism and its subsequent final detachment from its Indian equivalent. Its use and improvement mark the beginning of the formation of East Asian Buddhism as an essentially new Buddhist doctrinal strand.
Keywords: Geyi; matching concepts; Chinese Buddhism; adaptation

Atanas Iliev (Bulgarian philosopher, 1893–1985)
The Philosophical Life of the New Age
Abstract: The article of Atanas Iliev (1893–1985), published in 1934, discusses the change in the philosophical paradigm, notes the presence of the philosophy of life and comments on the figure of the philosopher of the new age.
Keywords: Philosophy of life; eternal values of philosophy; positivism; empiricism; rationalism–irrationalism; intuitivism

Tatyana Batuleva (Professor, DSc. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
On the Interpretation of Values in Radoslav-Andrea Tsanoff's Works
Abstract: The object of analysis in this paper is the interpretation of values in Radoslav-Andrea Tsanoff's works. The Bulgarian-born American philosopher calls for a new approach to moral values and their inclusion in a new scale. The main emphases are: the connection between knowledge and values; value aspects of reality; differentiation between sharable and non-sharable values. The conclusion is substantiated that Tsanoff's theory of values is the main connecting element providing a successful transition between two types of discourse: ethical and socio-political.  His original optics, aimed at inscribing moral imperatives in economic and political relations, take him much further than his initial goal: “to discover new aspects of traditional virtues and vices” and to build a new scale of values. His theory of values attempts to bring a new in the economic and political relations because, without a “vital moral principle” to sustain it, any economic or political reform would lose its positive charge. The ethical perspective is organically woven into the socio-political narrative. With his analysis of the ambivalent role of scientific and technical discoveries (progress is not only a function of science's progress but also of this progress's role in upholding specific values), Tsanoff is once again “ahead of his time”. In this case, he fits into a discourse highlighting the part of “responsibility”, which makes him particularly relevant.
Keywords: values (shared and non-shared; independent and complementary); value scale; morality; global perspective; political relations; war and peace; responsibility

Dimitar Tsatsov (Professor, DSc. at Veliko Tarnovo University ‘St. St. Cyril and Methodius’)
Elements of the Bulgarian Philosophy of War in the First Half of the 20th Century
Abstract: The article is a review of basic publications that refer to, relatively speaking, the Bulgarian philosophy of war. This concept includes the numerous attempts for an ontological and value-based interpretation of the Bulgarian combat experience, as well as conceptualization of the war as a social phenomenon by Bulgarian philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, military theorists, etc.
Keywords: war; causes; ideological mask; social evil

Georgi Belogashev (Associate Professor at Veliko Tarnovo University ‘St. St. Cyril and Methodius’)
The Ontological Basis of History in Asen Ignatov's Theory
Abstract: This article aims to point out Ignatov's heuristic approach in revealing the ontological status of history, the metaphysical factors and conditions for it to be as it is, as well as the specific position of man as an individual among these essential circumstances forming socio-historical reality and her history.Ignatov indicates these initial circumstances as material, spiritual and ideal, placed in a time- space discourse, and in relations with each other. The essence of history as such, and the history of social communities, is revealed through the oppositions individual/common, nature/history, spirit/history, man/genus, which, as interrelationships, reveal changes in social existence at a deeper ontological level.
Keywords: Asen Ignatov; philosophy of history; metaphysical factors; individual/common; nature/history; spirit/history; man/genus; We-being

Kosta Bentchev (PhD in Philosophy at Veliko Tarnovo University ‘St. St. Cyril and Methodius’)
To the Reception of Martin Luther by Yanko Yanev
Abstract: The article investigates J. Janeff’s reading of M. Luther and the assessment of the Bulgarian author for the necessity of a mediation between the Human and the Godhead’s principles resulting in taking a position that seeks for God while culminating in the notion of a tragic heroism.
Keywords: Janeff; Luther; Godmanhood; centre/Middle; fear; heroism

Ivanka Stapova (Professor, DSc. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Mediators Between Two Worlds, or about Bulgarian Voices Abroad

Nina Dimitrova (Professor, DSc. at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Nietzsche. Topoi of the Spirit

Stefan Dimitrov (Assistant Professor, PhD at the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Non-classical Science. Science and Pseudoscience