Number 1 – 2017

Issue editor: Doroteya Angelova
CONTENTS & Abstracts & Keywords

Doroteya Angelova – A Comparative Analysis of the Concept of Implication in Some Contemporary Logical Systems and Their Origins in Antiquity
This article examines the main characteristics of the concepts of implication in relevant, connexive and paraconsistent logics and discusses the origins of these concepts in Antiquity. It is made a comparative analysis between the meaning of this connective in the three logics in regard to their correspondence to the conditional “if…., then….” used in natural language and presents arguments that the notion of implication, proposed by relevant logic, provides the most adequate formal explication of the conditional connective in the mentioned sense.
Keywords: implication; connexive logic; relevant logic; paraconsistent logic

Boris Nikolov – The Idea of Paraconsistent Formalization of Contradiction in Transcendental and Dialectical Logic
: The basic aim of this study is to reveal and demonstrate how the analysis of the topic of contradiction can outline directions for overcoming transcendentalism, i.e., outline ontological-dialectical approaches to logic through the prism of Kant and Hegel, and based on this, present the result of paraconsistent logic with regard to the formalization of dialectical logic.
Keywords: transcendentalism; ontological-dialectic principle; dialectical logic; paraconsistent logic; formalism

Denitsa Zhelyazkova – Analysis of “Indefinables” and Logical Constants in Russell's Philosophical Logic
: The article discusses some of the main problems of Russell's philosophical logic and the ambiguous solutions he undertook in its field, related primarily to the problem of form. The article puts a more detailed emphasis on Russell's frequently changing views on the nature of propositions, as related to the method of logical analysis applied in Principles of Mathematics (1903), in an unpublished manuscript on Theory of Knowledge (1913), and in Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1918). The main questions this article attempts to answer are the following. Why did Russell repeatedly return to issues he had already discussed, rejecting his previous assertions and, if not replacing them with new ones, at least thinking them in a new way? Why did he not give a definite answer to the question as to what propositions are and how they should be analyzed, and does this have some connection with the missing answer to the question of logical forms?
Keywords: Russell; philosophical logic; proposition; logical form; propositional functions; analysis; entities; constants

Stilian Iotov – Meaning and Validity in Hobbes
: The article is devoted to the problem, but still not lost its relevance theory about binominal nature of reasoning. The author has turned to a theoretical - historical reconstruction of the classic views of Thomas Hobbes who can be united under the name “two-names theory” and for which researchers differ in their conclusions. It's about the idea that language consists of names and that the two main term in a judgment - subject and predicate - act as names. This theory is shared by John. St. Mill, but is subject to critical analysis by G. Frege and B. Russell. At this historical and philosophical background are addressed three topics: the semantic role of the names, the dependence of their importance to the principles that govern the logical form of a valid proposition and the conclusions of T. Hobbes on definitions needed for the birth and development of theoretical knowledge.
Keywords: meaning; validity; language; names; propositions; universalism; nominalism; meaning; truth; definitions.
Kamen Lozev – Characteristica Universalis: Leibniz and Descartes
: The paper discusses Leibniz's project for a lingua universalis undertaken in his first period, 1666- 1679, when he was enthusiastic about the possibility of creating a universal language based on the “alphabet of human thought”, which he viewed as the “most important instrument for the perfection of the human mind”. The article analyzes the main issue confronted by the young Leibniz, i.e., the creation of a list of “primitive notions”, also discussed by Descartes in his letter to Mersenne from 20th November 1629. Leibniz's response to the issues raised by Descartes is outlined together with how he resolved them by means of the theory of so-called “blind thought” (cogitatio caeca). The article concludes with a brief account of the influence these ideas in Leibniz's work had on the 19th century pioneers of modern logic.
Keywords: characteristica universalis; alphabet of thought; Logica inventive, blind thought

Lidia Kondova – Contextual and Theoretical Aspects of G. W. Leibniz's Theory of the Natural Machine
: This article discusses the specific distinction Leibniz drew between natural and artificial machines and aims to clarify the contextual and theoretical particularities associated with this theory, thus serving as a kind of introduction to highly specialized research, particularly that conducted by Michel Fichant. The modern debate on the ideality vs. the reality of the body is typical of this problem field; the aim being to define the place of the body in this debate and to evaluated the role this doctrine plays in resolving the question. For this purpose, the study sets itself the following main tasks: (1) to serve as an introduction to the problem of the relation between body and substance, presenting the specifics of the ontological scheme and the metaphysical proofs of substances; (2) to clarify the historical and philosophical context in which Leibniz's concept of the organic machine appeared; (3) to analyze the categories of aggregate and organism, of natural and artificial machine; (4) to demonstrate in what sense it may be said the natural machine meets the necessary and sufficient conditions that define a substance – namely, to be united and active; and (5) to define the dividing line between the natural machine and artificial ones. The study concludes with a brief recapitulation of past achievements and, registering the interest provoked among other scholars, defines the significance of Fichant's contribution to the solving the problems related to Leibniz's metaphysical system that are of key importance for our times.
Keywords: Leibniz; natural machine; artificial machine; organism; aggregate; body; substance; metaphysics
Lilia Gurova – Putnam's Views Regarding the Road of Philosophy in an Age of Science
: The paper discusses Hilary Putnam's views on the role of philosophy in an age of science as they are presented in his text “Science and Philosophy” (2010). The article explains the importance of Putnam's central idea that philosophy needs to address both moral “questions for grownups” (Cavell) and theoretical questions about “how things hang together” (Sellars).
Keywords: Hilary Putnam; “Science and Philosophy”; moral and theoretical questions; questions for grownups; “how things hang together”

Rosen Lyutzkanov – Putnam's Realisms
: The paper juxtaposes two stripes of realism, both present in the writings of the late Hilary Putnam. As is well known, forty years ago Hilary Putnam, who was until then a staunch supporter of metaphysical realism, switched to a different doctrine, which he called “internal realism”; many adherents of realism saw this as an unjustifiable retreat from their camp. The question remains: is internal realism a true variety of realism? In order to answer it, §1 compares the postulates of metaphysical and internal realism, while §2 shows how internal realism deals with certain key distinctions observed by metaphysical realism.
Keywords: Hilary Putnam; metaphysical realism; internal realism

Anna Ivanova – The Fact/Value Dichotomy: Hilary Putnam “On the Blade's Edge”
: The article explores Hilary Putnam's analysis of the distinction between factual and value judgments. The topics discussed relate to the main arguments against the non- cognitivist, emotivist interpretation of value claims. Hilary Putnam's contribution is evaluated in the light of the problem of scientific objectivity, and his notion of “objectivity without objects” is supported from within the context of pragmatist philosophy.
Keywords: fact/value dichotomy; value judgments; scientific objectivity; pragmatism

Anton Donchev – Multiple Realizability and Its Critics
: Hilary Putnam, one of the most famous analytical philosophers of the 20th century, died in 2016. His intellectual legacy extends to many areas of analytic philosophy and, beyond philosophy, to mathematics and computer science. The present article is focused on his particular contribution to the philosophy of mind – the thesis of the multiple realizability of mental states. Multiple realizability is among the most influential arguments in the debate on the mind-body problem and on the relationship between psychology and “the more fundamental” natural sciences (neuroscience, physiology, biology, physics, etc.).
The article presents a brief overview of multiple realizability. In the first part, the author introduces the concept, and in the second part presents a reconstruction of the main argument of multiple realizability, as well as the most frequent applications of the concept in the philosophy of mind. In the third part, some of the most influential critiques of multiple realizability are reviewed.
Keywords: Hilary Putnam; philosophy of mind; analytic philosophy; multiple realizability; mind-body problem; psychology

Dimitar Elchinov – Putnam's Argument against Philosophical Behaviourism
: This article presents a critique of Hillary Putnam's influential argument against philosophical behaviourism, as expounded in his article “Brains and Behaviour”, dating from 1963. The author begins with a brief reconstruction of philosophical behaviourism as such, and his critique proceeds in parallel with the reconstruction of Putnam's argument against it. The main problems the article identifies in this argument are: 1) that it is speculative and hence vague; 2) that it unfoundedly ascribes to philosophical behaviourism an ontological commitment, and attacks its empirical stance in a way suited for a critique of a metaphysical stance.
Keywords: Putnam; behaviourism; Super-Spartans; behaviour; neuroscience

Aneta Karageorgieva – The “Brains in a Vat” Argument
: This article discusses the significance of Hilary Putnam's “brains in a vat” argument for the metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of language in the last 30 – 35 years; the presentation is limited only to the classical discussion of the argument, almost entirely leaving aside the contemporary debate. Putnam devised this argument in order to refute both metaphysical realism and skepticism in philosophy. The analysis of the argument against metaphysical realism demonstrates that this realism is based on the causal restriction of linguistic reference. After the reconstruction of Putnam's argument, the article attempts to show by further analyzing it the extent of its consequences for a philosopher's epistemological stance, and especially for theories of truth.
Keywords: metaphysical realism; brains in a vat; skepticism; reference; truth

Marina Bakalova – Hilary Putnam on Literature, Morality, and the Social Sciences
: This article addresses the issue of how moral philosophy and social sciences can play a role in defining visions of a better future for humanity. The author analyzes Hilary Putnam's relevant ideas in this respect, including the possible impact of knowledge obtained through literature in this process. The article emphasizes two aspects of Putnam's discussion. First, the author focuses on what underlies the current inability of social sciences and practical reasoning to perform their proper visionary functions. Second, the author presents certain potentially interesting consequences of Putnam's ideas on errors in practical reasoning, which are applicable to a classical debate in this field.
Keywords: Hilary Putnam; social sciences; moral philosophy; practical reasoning; literature

Lyudmila Ivancheva – “Socially Robust Science” as a New Research Concept
. Using an analytical and synthetic approach, the article presents a summary of the changes that have taken place in the social context of science in the modern knowledge society as compared with the earlier industrial society. The author identifies the intense dynamic changes in the role, status and social functions of science occurring during the formation of knowledge-based societies. The article also identifies various concepts, models and political theses that, while focusing on one or another of the important aspect of these processes, fail to adequately articulate or explain the whole range of changes taking place in the exo-systemic social context of modern science. This proliferation of theoretical concepts and the diversity of their main focuses calls for a reconceptualization of the social dimensions of modern science, which would allow a sharper delineation of the new elements in the positioning of science as a factor of social development and in the interaction between science and society. It would also enable a more adequate and detailed interpretation of the respective processes. In this connection, a new concept of “socially robust science” is introduced.
Keywords: science and society; social context of science; social relevance and responsibility; re-conceptualization; socially-robust science

Lyuba Spasova – Connections and Mutual Dependencies between External Migration Processes and Crime
: The article explores the mutual connection between the processes of crime and external migration and analyses the interconnectivity and relation between these two phenomena. A theoretical model is constructed and tested based on the available data; outlining the illogical gaps in knowledge, the author sets a path for further research.
Keywords: emigration/immigration; crime; deviance; trends.
Lilia Gurova, Anton Donchev – The Philosophy of Science and Its Significance for the World in Which We Live: A Conversation with Stephan Hartmann, Stathis Psillos, and Roman Frigg
Petja Todoriva - In memory of the intellectual Tzvetan Todorov

Martin Tabakov- In memory of the logician Raymond Smullyan
Kamelia Zhabilova – The Unfamiliar Yordan Yovkov