Philosophical Alternatives 3/2018

Topic of the issue 200 YEARS WITH KARL MARX
Issue editors: Dimitar Ganov and Martin Tabakov
CONTENTS & Abstracts &Keywords

Maksim Mizov – Marx's General Intellect and the Transition
: The article analyzes Marx's concept of General Intellect in the perspective of the misfortunate transition of Bulgarian state and society to democracy and the market economy. The author reveals some of the most important reasons and factors for the intentional blocking of the possibilities for a normal and beneficial reach of ordinary people to the treasures of the General Intellect.
Keywords: General Intellect; democracy; market; progress; transition; regress

Ekaterina Naumova – Dematerialization of Capitalism: A New Understanding of Social Intellect
: The article criticizes the established thesis as to the non-material nature of contemporary capitalism. The author postulates the contrary thesis as to the financial nature of post-Fordism, which can be described as “non-productive” activity. The analysis is centered on Marx's conception of general intellect, interpreted in terms of inalienable property. The logic of the development of the general intellect is described through the formula “General Intellect-General Intellect'”, which expresses the modern tendencies in the development of financial-cognitive capitalism, whereby knowledge becomes a new fetish, embodying the principle of self-increasing value.
Keywords: general intellect; cognitive capitalism; financial capitalism; “M-M'”; post-Fordism

Dimitar Ganov – The Generally Privatized Intellect
: The article discusses “general intellect” and reveals the quite high incompatibility between post-operaismo and Marx, but also a certain change in Marx's views after Grundrisse. The article also reveals Marx's inconsistency as a historical materialist, which is probably one of the causes of deterministic readings of his works today.
Keywords: general (intellect); general (knowledge); operaismo; cognitive work; cyberspace; cybertime

Dimitar Zashev – On Translating Marx

Theodor Adorno – Theses Against Occultism. Translated by Dimitar Zashev

Dimitar Zashev – The Early Marx: An Aestheticist

Nikola Ginev – On the Incomparable. In Memory of Dimitar Zashev
Ludwig von Mises – Excerpts from Marxism Unmasked

Martin Tabakov – Psychological Difficulties of us Left-wing Ideologues
: The consistent and logical assessment for the so-called “Socialist system” is „state Capitalism“ and all Marxist tenets about Capitalism -- class, class struggle, exploitation, nepotism, comprador bourgeoisie….should be applied to this system. Also the consistent and logical Marxist assessment of the actions of “Czarist Rus-sia" and USSR to Bulgaria would be being imperialistic. But although until 1940 Bulgarian Marxists sharply criticized „Czarist Russia“, Bulgarian Left today find it difficult to make such assessments. The reasons are not theoretical but psychological. As consecutive Marxists, they should come to uncomfortable conclusions about the System and about „Czarist Russia“ and USSR But for biographical reasons they have a deep personal sympathy for them. They believe that their prosperity has behaved to the "System", which in turn is the result of the occupation of Bulgaria from the USSR. And any negative assessment would be for them the attempt to destroy the world they have created and believe that this world was real, and challenging their value system. And often prefer to ignore all facts and logical analyzes, but to maintain their mental balance and to live in their artificial but beautiful world.
Keywords: Marxism; ideology; Capitalism; nomenklatura; class; exploitation; oligarchy; empire; imperialism, Bulgaria; USSR; Russia.

Momchil Badzhakov – Why Marxists became Putinists?
:The article discusses the process of strange transformation of Marxists into Putinists and Marxism in Putinism. This process is traced as a transformation of communist utopia and ideology into Orthodox fundamentalism and neo-eurasianism; the transformation of the totalitarian regime into a regime of "rival authoritarianism" and the communist nomenclature in a pseudo-capitalist oligarchy. The conclusion is that post-communism in Russia resembles Nazism rather than former communism.
Keywords:Marxism; Putinism; communism; post-communism; Nazism; nomenclature; oligarchy.

Krasimir Delchev – “Anti-Marx”. Three Theses
: The article criticizes Marx's political economy.
Keywords: Àbstract work; militant utopian; digital revolution
Valeri Lichev – Tolerance, Discrimination, and Language
: Political correctness is blamed by its opponents for the failed model of multiculturalism, the influx of migrants, and the threat of terrorist acts. The author refers to the contemporary achievements in semiotics, hermeneutics and philosophical anthropology. His criticism is directed at: 1) the paradoxes of postmodern philosophical attempts to justify the idea of political correctness; 2) the way new terminology is introduced, leading at a linguistic level to exclusion, not inclusion, of disadvantaged people: E. Benveniste asserts that the third person is rather a non-person. The article concludes that politically correct language should be grounded on a basis that takes into account the three persons of the conjugation of verbs. Similar philosophical and ethical ideas can be found in the works of J. Kristeva, T. Todorov, P. Ricoeur. This is one of the possible ways to overcome the exclusion of disadvantaged people who are named using terms, but are not in a way that designates them as participants in social and political dialogue.
Keywords: multiculturalism; terrorism; political correctness; semiotics; hermeneutics; ethics; censorship; art

Vihra Pavlova – Ñhronopolitics as a Basis for Constructive Political Activity in Building New Forms of Political Organization
:The article considers the development of chronopolitics, a new current in political science, which studies political time and its structurally-spatial features. Its conceptual foundations date back to the 1970s, to the world-system theory of I. Wallerstein and G. Modelski's “long cycle” theory, which, for their part, serve as a conceptual basis of contemporary geopolitical research. The author views the two connected sciences (chronopolitics and geopolitics) as mutually complementary in a theoretical and applied aspect.
Keywords: chronopolitics; long-cycles; global leadership; bifurcation; time-space; chronotope political model; geopolitics
Nina Dimitrova – Vasil Hadjistoyanov-Beron and the Ideal of Bulgarian Education
: This essay attempts to present Vasil Hadjistoyanov-Beron's views on education in the context of the Bulgarian national revival. Vasil Beron (1804–1909) was a nephew of Petar Beron, the greatest Bulgarian scientist of his time; unlike his uncle, he was closely associated with the Bulgarian enlightenment. Vasil Beron was very much concerned with the balance between natural sciences and the humanities as components of the education of Bulgarians in the second half of the 19th century. As a doctor of medicine and author of works in the field of history of sciences, he insisted that philology, logic, psychology, theology, history, etc., should be taught in Bulgarian schools. The article draws a parallel between his views on the educational system in Bulgaria and public debates on the same topic that went on in the interwar period.
Keywords: Vasil Beron; positivism; educational system; Bulgarian national revival

Tatyana E. Kirkova – Bibliographical and Biographical Data on Dr. Petar Beron in the Lorenz Catalogue

Gr. Penchov – The Life Work of Dr. Petar Beron

Anani Stoynev – On Dr. Petar Beron's Slavic Philosophy. Patriotism as Naturphilosophie
The article analyzes Slavic Philosophy by Dr. Petar Beron (1799-1871), a figure of the Bulgarian national revival who studied philosophy in Heidelberg and medicine in Munich. The book represents a lengthy introduction to his seven-volume Panepistemia, published in Paris in the 1860s. Although a work of philosophy, Slavic Philosophy pertains to the field of Naturphilosophie proper, and the ethnic aspect is present only in the title. It represents a naive attempt on the part of this Bulgarian thinker of the National Revival period “to surpass” the European achievements of his time in using an odd terminology that he constructed by himself on the basis of Greek models.  
Keywords: National Revival; Naturphilosophie; fluid; electre
Aleksandar Rangelov – Brokenness and Intellectual Presence
Dimitar Tsatsov – A Monograph Worth Translating into Bulgarian